Electron Beam Welding : Principle, Working, Equipment’s, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages

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Today we will learn about electron beam welding, principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Electron beam welding is a liquid state welding process. Liquid state welding are those welding processes in which, the metal to metal joint form in liquid or molten state. This is also classified as a new welding process because it uses electrons kinetic energy to fuse two metal work pieces. German physicist Karl-Heinz has developed this welding in 1958. In this welding process, a high jet of electrons strikes at welding plates where its kinetic energy converts into heat energy. This heat energy is sufficient to melt the work pieces and fuse them into one piece. This whole process carried out in vacuum otherwise the electrons collides with air particles and loses its energy.


Electron Beam Welding:



This welding works on same principle of electron beam machining. This process uses kinetic energy of electrons to produce heat. This heat further use to weld two welding plates. When a high jet of electrons strike at welding plates, its kinetic energy converts into heat energy. This heat energy is sufficient to fuse two metal plates together to form a weld joint.
Electron Beam Welding : Principle, Working, Equipment's, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages




Power Supply:

This process uses a power source to supply continuous beam of electrons for welding process. The voltage range of welding is about 5 – 30 kV for low voltage equipment’s or for thin welding and 70 – 150 kV for high voltage equipment’s or for thick welding.


Electron Gun:

It is heart of electron beam welding. It is a cathode tube (negative pole) which generates electrons, accelerate them and focus it on a spot. This gun mostly made by tungsten or tantalum alloys. The cathode filament heated up to 2500 degree centigrade for continuous emission of electrons.



Anode is a positive pole which is just after the electron gun. Its main function is to attract negative charge, (in this case electron) provide them a path and don’t allow them to diverge from its path.


Magnetic Lenses:

There are a series of magnetic lenses which allows only convergent electrons to pass. They absorb all low energy and divergent electrons, and provide a high intense electron beam.


Electromagnetic lens and deflection coil:

Electromagnetic lens used to focus the electron beam on work piece and deflection coil deflect the beam at required weld area. These are last unit of EBW process.


Work holding device:

EBW uses CNC table for hold work piece which can move in all three direction. The welding plates are clamped on CNC table with the use of suitable fixtures.


Vacuum Chamber:

As we know, whole thisprocess takes place in a vacuum chamber. Vacuum is created by mechanical or electric driven pump. The pressure ranges in vacuum chamber is about 0.1 to 10 Pa.


Working of Electron beam welding:

Its working can be summarized as follow.


  • First the electron gun, which is a cathode, produces electrons. These electrons move towards anode which is positive charged and placed right after electron gun.
  • The anode accelerates the electrons and form a electron jet which is further move towards magnetic lenses.
  • The magnetic lenses are a series of lenses which absorb low energy electrons and does not allow to divergent electron to passes through it. It provides a high intense electron jet.
  • Now this electron beam passes through electromagnetic lens and defecting coils which focus and deflect the electron beam at the required spot. This unit direct high velocity electron beam to the weld cavity where its kinetic energy converts into heat energy due to collision. This heat energy is used to create weld by fusion. This whole welding process carried out in a vacuum chamber otherwise the electrons collides with air particle in the way and loses its energy.

This working can be easily understandable by following video.



  • It is used in aerospace industries and marine industries for structure work
  • It is used to join titanium and its alloy.
  • This type of welding is widely used to join gears, transmission system, turbocharger etc. in automobile industries.
  • It weld electronic connectors in electronic industries.
  • In Nuclear reactors and in Medical industries

Advantages and disadvantages:


  • It can weld both similar and dissimilar metals.
  • It provides high metal joining rate.
  • Low operating cost because no filler material and flux are using in this process
  • It provide high finish welding surface.
  • It can used to weld hard materials.
  • Less welding defects occur due to whole process carried out in vacuum.


  • High capital or set up cost.
  • High skilled labor required.
  • Frequently maintenance required.
  • Work pieces size is limited according to vacuum chamber.
  • It cannot do at site due to vacuum.


This is all about electron beam welding, principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, don’t forget to share it with your friends. Subscribe our website for more interesting articles. Thanks for reading it.

Image Source : https://www.ebindustries.com/electron-beam-welding/

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