Thursday, 26 May 2016

Milling Machine Operation

Today we will learn about milling machine operation. We have discussed about main parts and types of milling machine is my last post and know that milling is a most versatile machine used in mechanical industries. It can perform turning, facing, slot cutting, chamfering etc. to convert the work piece into desire shape. It can machine on both symmetrical and non symmetrical work piece. The various operation performed by milling machine are described below.


Milling machine operation:

As we know that milling can perform various operations to convert the work piece into desire shape. It is a very useful machine and mostly used in die making industries. The most popular operation done on milling machine is described below.

Plain milling:

As the name implies, this operation used to get place surface. In this milling, the cutting tool axis is parallel to the machining surface or the face of the machining surface. This operation is very common and done on almost all jobs. This can be carried out on every milling machine.

Milling Machine Operation

End milling:

This operation is also used to get plain surface. In this operation, the cutting tool axis is perpendicular to the machining surface or the face of the machining surface. It is also used to slot cutting on the milling axis.

Milling Machine Operation

Gang milling:

As the name is gang, in this milling operation more than one milling cutters are used to machining. It is a horizontal milling operation, more than one cutter with different shape and sizes are fixed at the arbor, which cut the desire shape in one pass. This milling operation can save most of time of milling.

Milling Machine Operation

Straddle milling:

In this operation, two or more parallel vertical surface machined in a single pass. In this milling the work piece is situated between the two cutters which can machined the surface vertically. The cutter are fixed on the same arbor and cut the metal in one pass.

Milling Machine Operation

Slotting:


In this operation slots are cut by a cutter on the work piece. The slots are in various shapes like circular, rectangular etc. and sizes according to the requirement. 

Milling Machine Operation

Angular milling:


In this operation, surfaces which are at an angle to the axis of the cutter, is machined by the rotary cutter.

Milling machine can perform all other common operations like turning, facing, fillet making, chamfering, drilling, gear cutting, planning, slot cutting etc. These are all main milling machine operation. If you have any query, ask by commenting. 
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Wednesday, 18 May 2016

Types of milling machine

Today we will learn about types of milling machine used in machining of metal work pieces. In my last post we have learn about milling machine and its main parts and we know that milling machine is one of the most versatile machine which can perform any machining operation on unsymmetrical work piece. It is mostly used in mold manufacturing. Due to its versatility, it is available milling machine available various types and sizes. These are described below.



Types of milling machine:

There are various milling machines are used in mechanical industries. These are described below.

1. Column and knee type milling machine:

It is the very common milling machine type. In this machine a vertical column is attached to the bed which consist all gear drives which rotate the knee and saddle. A knee is situated on the base which can provide vertical motion to the work piece or which can move up and down. A saddle is attached to the upper section of the knee which can move in transverse direction. The table is placed over the which can hold the work piece by use of climbing bolts.

Vertical milling machine:

In is one of the types of knee and column milling machine. The spindle if this machine is in vertical position. No arbor is required in this machine. The cutter tool has cylindrical shape and the cutting edges are situated at the circumference of the cylindrical face.

Types of milling machine

Horizontal milling machine:

As the name implies the spindle is situated horizontally. The spindle rotates horizontally. A arbor is attached to the machine which holds the cylindrical disk shape cutter which cuts the metal work piece.

Types of milling machine

Universal milling machine:

The universal milling machine is same as horizontal milling machine except there is a arrangement of swing up the table to 45 degree in either direction.

Types of milling machine



2. Fixed bed milling machine:

In this milling machine the bed of the machine is fixed to the machine. There is no arrangement of knee and saddle which can move vertically and transversally. The worktable is direct situated at the fixed bed. The spindle of this machine is mountain on a movable spindle head. It can move in vertical and horizontal direction and perform the cutting operation.

 Simplex milling machine:

In the simplex machine spindle head or the spindle can travel only in one direction. Mostly it travels in vertical direction.

Duplex milling machine:

In this machine the spindle can travel both in vertical and horizontal direction.

Triplex milling machine:

In triplex machine spindle can move in all three direction along X Y and Z axis.



3. Planner milling machine

Planner milling machine is mostly used for facing operation in mass production. These machine are similar to the bed type milling machine except it can mounted with various cutters and spindle heads to the machine. These cutters can perform the facing operations simultaneously.

Types of milling machine



4. Special milling machine:

These machines are the modern milling machines which are developed to easy the milling operations according to the jobs.

Tracer milling machine:

Tracer machine can perform all difficult die making job by synchronizing the tracing unit. It can develop any difficult shape. It is mostly used in automobile and aerospace industries.

CNC milling machine:

CNC is most versatile milling machine which is control by a computer. It is upgrade version of bed type milling machine in which the spindle can move in all three direction and the table can rotate 360 degree. These all movement is hydraulically controlled which is command by a computer. Any difficult geometry can make on it. A sketch of the work piece is loaded to the computer which is cut on work piece by the cutters automatically.

Types of milling machine

Image Source : www.indiamart.com

Today we have discussed about main types of milling machine. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting.
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Tuesday, 17 May 2016

Gear Terminology: Basic Defination Used in Gear

Today we will discuss about gear terminology. Gears are widely used mechanical industries for power transmission. It is used where small distance between driver and driven shaft.  It is the only positive drive which can transfer exact velocity ratio to the driven shaft, so widely used in machineries and other mechanical devices. 

Gear terminology means all definitions used to describe a gear or the terms used to design a gear are known as gear terminology. The mostly used definitions are described below. 

Gear Terminology:


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow. 

Gear Terminology: Basic Defination Used in Gear

Face of tooth:

It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.

Flank of tooth:

The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.

Top land:

The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.

Face width:

Width of the tooth is known as face width.

Pitch Circle:

It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is describe by the pitch circle motion.

Pitch Circle diameter:

The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter. 

Pitch point:

When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of meshing gears is known as pitch point. 

Pressure angle or angle of obliquity:

Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point. 

Addendum:

Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known as addendum.

Dedendum:

Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is known as dedendum of the gear.

Addendum circle:

The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This circle is concentric with pitch circle.

Dedendum circle:

The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle. This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle. 

Circular pitch:

The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth, measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular pitch. 

Diametrical pitch:

The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is known as diametrical pitch. 

Module:

The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch. 

Clearance:

When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle. 

Total depth:

The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction. 

Working depth:

The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.

Tooth thickness:

Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is known as tooth thickness.

Tooth space:

Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is known as the tooth space. 

Backlash:

It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents jamming of the gears in meshing condition.  

Profile:

It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth are generally have cycloidal or involute profile. 
Fillet radius

Path of contact:

The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end of engagement is known as path of contact. 

Arc of contact:

It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of engagement is known as arc of contact. 

Arc of approach:

The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch point is known as arc of approach.

Arc of recess:

The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is known as arc of recess.

Today we have learned about Gear terminology or the basic term used to design a gear. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting below. 

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Monday, 16 May 2016

Types of Hammers

Today we will discuss about types of hammers. Hammer is widely used in mechanical industries to drive any thin metal part like nails etc. by an impact force. It is a tool which is used to create a sudden pointed force, which is further used to drive nails, remove unwanted metal parts form work piece and also in forging to create flat surfaces. Hammers are also used in our daily routine to drive nail in a wall or in wooden work piece etc.

A hammer consist two main parts. The first one is handle and the other one is head which is a heavy metal piece mounted at perpendicular to the axis of the handle. There are many different types of hammers used in mechanical industries for different uses. Now we will discuss about it.

Types of Hammers:

A hammer is a hand tool which is used to create sudden impact force. The impact of hammer depends on the size and shape of hammers and the power given to drive it. The hammer can be classified into many types according to its shapes and size but mainly there are only two hammers types.

A. Hand Powered Hammers:

As the name implies hand hammer are powered by manually human hands. According to shape and size of heads and its different uses it has following types.


Types of Hammers1. Ball peen hammer:

As shown in figure, one side of head is shaped as ball and other is flat. It is mostly used to shaping rivets and metal work pieces. It may available in different sizes.




Types of Hammers2. Claw hammer:

It is a tradition hammer which one side is a flat other side of head has a nails removing shape from wooden and other work piece. It is also known as carpenter’s hammer.



Types of Hammers3. Cross peen hammer:

This hammer have one face is like ball and other face of head is like wedge. It is mostly used in domestic work where the peen is used to straight the nails.




Types of Hammers4. Dead blow hammer:

As a name implies it deliver very large impact force.




Types of Hammers5. Engineer hammer:

It is upgrade version of drilling hammer with bigger handle. The handle size is about 14 inch and mostly used in locomotive and steam engine work.

Types of Hammers

6. Geologist hammer or rock pick hammer:

It is specially used to break or split rocks and mostly used by a geologist.





Types of Hammers7. Knife edged hammer:

One end of this hammer is knife edge and other one is flat surface. It is mostly used to cut or split wood.




Types of Hammers8. Sledge hammer:

It has a large flat metal head joint with a large handle. It is used to drive wedges.


Types of Hammers9. Rock climbing hammer:

It is a special type of hammer used to climb the rocks.




Types of Hammers10. Rounding hammer:

It is also known as blacksmith hammer. It has round face which is used to design or shapes a forged bar or sheet in blacksmith.






Types of Hammers

11. Soft faced hammer:

It has a soft face of rubber, plastic or copper. It is used where steel face may damage workpiece.



Types of Hammers12. Stonemason’s hammer:

This hammer is also known as brick hammer. One end of the head is flat and other end has a chisel like shape. It is used to split bricks or concrete wall.




Types of Hammers13. Welder chipping hammer:

It is used to remove unwanted welded area form the work piece. It is also dissipates heat.  






Types of Hammers14. Lump hammer:

It is a double face hammer and used to driving steel chisel in work piece. It is one of the types of sledge hammer which has smaller handle with light weight. It is mostly used in domestic work.





Types of Hammers15. Mechanic's hammer:

It is used to remove dents form the sheets. It has a small curve anvil at one side of head and a sharp chisel type face at other side.


16. Drilling hammer:

It is mostly used in drilling in rocks with a chisel. It has a head weight almost 2 kg attached with a handle of 10 inch which is mostly drive by one hand. Other hand is used to hold the chisel.


17. Lathe hammer:

One end of this hammer head has a hatchback blade and other end a round head at other side. It is using at lathe machine is workshop.


18. Brass hammer:


It is made by brass. It is used in flammable area to like oil or fuel fields. It prevents to spark generation during hamming.

B. Mechanically Powered Hammers:

It is driven by some of mechanical power like hydraulic power or by Gear drives.


Types of Hammers1. Hammer drill:

It is a rotary hammer which has a drill at one side which provides hammering action. It is used to drill in brittle material.



Types of Hammers2. Steam hammer:

It is steam driven hammer and used to shaping the forged material. In this hammer the hammer head is attached to a piston which driven by the steam pressure. At the piston moves down it provide impact force which used to shape the material.



Types of Hammers3. Jack hammer:

It is driven by the pneumatic pressure of electro mechanical. It is used to dig out roads.



Image Source : www.indiamart.com

Today we have discussed about types of hammers. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. 
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Friday, 13 May 2016

Milling Machine: Parts and Working

Today we will learn about milling machine parts and its working. Milling machine is used to machining the metal workpiece by a revolving cutting tool. The milling cutter usually used to cut the metal perpendicular to the tool axis. Milling machine is used to form various types of parts in the industries because it can machine all shape and size work piece. It is used to cut slots, grooves, and drill and perform all operation like to shape the workpiece.

The basic milling machine parts are base, column, arbor, knee, saddle, table, overhanging arm, elevating screw, ram etc. These parts are responsible for proper working of milling machine.


Milling Machine: Parts and Working

Milling is a mechanical machine which is used to machined unsymmetrical job. It is widely used in tool and die making industries. It is a versatile machine. It can perform all operations like turning, facing, drilling, shaping, grooving, etc.


Milling Machine Parts:

There are mostly two types of milling machine used in mechanical industries. First one is horizontal milling machine and other one is vertical milling machine. The basic parts of these machine described as follow.

Milling Machine Parts and Working

Base:

It is the foundation part of a milling machine. All other parts are jointed on it. It carries the entire load so it should have high compressive strength so it is made by cast iron. It also works as reservoir of cutting fluid.

Column:

Column is another foundation part of milling machine. It is mountain vertically on the base. It supports the knee, table etc.  Work as housing for the all the other driving member.it is a hollow member which contains driving gears and sometimes motor for spindle and the table.

Knee:

Knee is the first moving part of milling machine. If is mounted on the column and moves along the slideways situated over the column. It is made by cast iron and moves vertically on slideways It moves up and down on sideways which change the distance between tool and workpiece It is driven by mechanically or hydraulically.

Saddle:

It is placed between table and the knee and work as intermediate part between them. It can moves transversally to the column face. It slides over the guide ways provided situated on the knee which is perpendicular to the column face. The main function of it is to provide motion in horizontal direction to work piece. It is also made by cast iron.

Table:

Table is situated over the knee. It is the part of machine which holds the work piece while machining.  It is made by cast iron and have T slot cut over it. The work piece clamp over it by using clamping bolts. The one end of clamping bolt fix into this slot and other is fix to work piece which hold the work piece. It can provide three degree of freedom to work piece.
  • It provides vertical motion by moving the knee up and down.
  • It provides horizontal motion by the feed screw.
  • It provides horizontal (transverse) motion by moving the saddle.

Overhanging arm:

It is situated over the column on horizontal milling machine. It is overhang over the column surface and other end supports the arbor. It is made by cast iron.

Spindle:

Spindle is the main part of the machine which hold tool at right place in vertical milling machine and hold arbor in horizontal milling machine. It is a moving part which is in rotary motion. It is motor driven and drives the tool. It has a slot on the front end of it. The cutting tool fix in that slot.

Arbor:

It is a mechanical part on which is used as extension part of the spindle in horizontal milling machine. It is fitted on the spindle whenever required. It holds the tool and moves it in correct direction.

Arbor Supports:

This are used to support arbor at right place. One end of this support is jointed at the overhanging arm and another is jointed with arbor.

Milling head:

It is upper section of vertical milling machine. It consist spindle, driving motor and other controlling mechanism.

Ram:

Ram is work as overhanging arm in vertical milling machine. One end of the arm is attached to the column and other end to the milling head.


Working of Milling Machine:

A milling is a versatile machine which is used to form different shapes by metal cutting. The working of milling machine is as follow.

1. First the cutting tool is set at the arbor which is connected to the spindle.
2. The knee is moved downward.
3. Now the work piece is clamped on the table by using clamping screw.
4. All the controlling points are set to zero like knee position, saddle position etc.
5. Now the spindle starts to rotate which further rotates the cutting tool.
6. As the tool is moving, we move the work piece as required by moving the knee, saddle and table.
7. The controlling axis move the work piece and cut the desire shape on it. The tool remains stationary and only in rotary motion.

Today we have learned about milling machine parts and its working. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting.
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Wednesday, 11 May 2016

Difference between pump and compressor

Today we will learn about difference between pump and compressor. Pump and compressor both are hydraulic machines used to increase the energy of fluid. Both of these devices used in industries and for domestic work. Pump is a device which is used to move the fluid (water, liquid and gases) and increase its elevation. It is mostly used to supply fluid from low elevation to high elevation. A compressor is a device which is a mechanical device just like pump but it increases the potential energy of fluid by compressing it in a closed container.

Difference between pump and compressor

The main difference between pump and compressor is that the pump is used to increase kinetic energy of fluid which further increases the elevation or pressure energy of it.  It moves the fluid from one place to another. But the compressor is mostly used to increase the potential energy (pressure energy) of fluid by pressuring it into a container. It is used to compress the fluid which increases its density and pressure. There are many other differences which are described below.

Difference between pump and compressor:

S. No.
Pump
Compressor

1.

It is used to move the fluid from one place to another at any height.


It is used to increase pressure or potential energy of fluid. It increases density of fluid.

2.

It increase pressure of fluid by move it at higher height. 


It increases pressure of fluid by compressing it.

3.

There is no change volume from inlet to outlet of pump.


There is change in volume from inlet to outlet from the compressor.


4.

It is used to transport liquid like water, oil etc.


It is used to transport gases.

5.

The may or may not change in pressure of fluid.


There must be change in pressure of fluid.

6.

It is mostly used to increase energy of incompressible fluid.

It is mostly used to increase energy of compressible fluid.


7.

It does not have storage. It only sucks the fluid from one side and forced it out from other side.


It has storage capacity. It can store gases and deliver it when required.

Today I have point out main difference between pump and compressor. If I forgot something, kindly inform me through comment.
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Monday, 9 May 2016

Difference between Shaper and Planer

When we talk about difference between shaper and planer, one thing strike our mind that both are different name of a same machine but this is not true. Both shaper and planner are used to make flat surfaces, cut slot and grooves and also use to make concave and convex geometry but there are some key differences which separate them from each other.

The basic and main difference between shaper and planer is that in shaper machine work piece is fixed at the table and tool is in reciprocating motion which rub the work piece and cut unwanted metal. It is used for small size work piece. But in planer machine tool is act like as stationary body and work piece move over it. It is used for large size work pieces. There are many other difference which are described below.

Difference between shaper and planer:


S.No.
Shaper
Planer

1.

Shaper is used to machine small work piece which can fit on the table.


It can work with large size of work piece.

2.

Tool is the moving part in shaper machine.


Work piece is the moving part in planer.

3.

Work piece remain stationary on this machine.


Tool remains stationary on planer.

4.


It is light duty machine.

It is a heavy duty machine.


5.

It can use only one cutting tool at a time.


It is equipped more than one cutting tool at a time.

6.

It uses single point cutting tool.

It also used single point cutting tool but more than one tool can be used at same time.


7.

Shaper is used quick return mechanism to drive the ram. In modern machine hydraulic drive is also used.


Planer is driven by gear or hydraulic arrangement.

8.

It gives poor accuracy compare to planer.


It gives higher accuracy.


9.

Shaper is smaller in size and gives slow cutting speed. It is not suitable where productivity is prime concern.


It is larger in size and gives large productivity.

10.

The stroke length can be adjustable.


Stroke length can be adjusted.

Today we have learned about key difference between shaper and planer. If I have missed some, kindly inform me through commenting.
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