Today we will discuss about Car Wheel Parts and its functions. Car wheel is a primary and basic part of any type of car or we can say that wheels are basic part of any vehicle. We cannot imagine a vehicle without wheels. It is last part of transmission line and final mover which finally move the vehicle/car. In this new ear, technical advancement modified some parts of car like design, engine, clutches, gearbox etc. Some of them have expired but car wheels are neither expired nor replaced. These are basic need of a car.
A car wheel consist several parts and all of these parts work together to rotate and control the wheel properly. All wheels’ parts primary function is to rotate and control the motion of wheel which finally moves the vehicle.
A wheel is a circular part which is rotated by axle (driver axle) or rotates the axle (driven axle). According to the history wheels are invented in late Neolithic age around 4500 – 3300 BC. Earliest solid wooden wheels were used to domestication of the horse. Now day’s wheels are using to move any heavy object form one place to another or in transportation.
A wheel and axle assembly receives power from the engine and liable to move the vehicle. Without these parts, a vehicle is nothing more than a showpiece.
A wheel consist many parts which perform different function and finally provide a comfortable ride to its passengers. In this article we will describe all important car wheel parts in detail and their function.
Car Wheels Parts:
- Wheel Bearing
- Wheel Rims
- Wheel Hub
- Bolt circle
- Outer Lip
- Wheel Fasteners
- Center Bore
- Valve System
- Center Gap
- Lug Hole
A bearing is a machine element which reduce friction between two moving parts and to support rotating parts. It also bears thrust and radial load. There are various types of bearings like hydro static bearing, hydrodynamic bearing, anti friction bearing etc. In a wheel assembly anti friction bearings are provided to support rotating axle and to connect it with wheel hub. There are many types of anti friction bearings like ball bearing, roller bearing, needle bearing, thrust bearing etc. According to the load requirements, different anti-friction bearings are used in different vehicles. The manufactures select these bearings according various parameters like kind to loads, load taking capacity, maximum vehicle speed, spare available etc.
These all bearings contain three fundamental components: inner race, outer race and rolling element (Roller, Balls etc.). The inner race is attached to the axle and outer race to the wheel hub. Wheel hub is fixed at the center of the wheel. The primary function of wheel bearing is to reduce friction and provide stability to the vehicle while the wheel spins.
Wheel rims or we can say rims is the middle part of car wheel which connect wheel hub to the tire. Sometimes people confuse between the rim and wheel and thick both are same thing but it is not.
A wheel rim is a a part of car wheel which make a connection between tire and hub, carry wheel cover and other customized fancy items.
Generally wheel rims are cylindrical in shape and its barrels create surface for a tire to be mounted. In conventional tires, tube is secured between tire and rim but in new generation tubeless tires, there is no tube and the rim and tire must be sealed properly which resist any leakage of air.
Commonly rims are made of stamped alloy steel which provides proper strength to car wheel. All weight of car is to be carried by the wheel so the manufactures of rims make sure its proper strength. In this new technological ear, light weighted aluminum alloy or other light weight alloy materials are also using by the manufactures.
The width and size of tire determine by the size of rim. Some of car owners uses custom rims which make their car look different and also can change their car’s tire size. These custom rims are sometimes colored with different colors, chrome platted and equipped with other decorative parts. These rims cost higher. owners uses custom rims which make their car look different and also can change their car’s tire size. These custom rims are sometimes color with different colors, chrome platted and equipped with other decorative parts. These rims cost higher compare to the original one.
The rim is bolted to the hub by means of bolt. The center part of the rim is stamped to attach with the wheel hub. Wheel cover is attached to rim. Now days wire rims are replaced by alloy rims.
Tire is a part of car wheel which is in direct contact with road. It is attached with rim and carries the vehicle weight. It transmits traction force to the road surface which enables the car to move forward. Tire material is chosen such that there is a required friction between road and tire.
The surface of tire is design with some special thread pattern, notches and grooves. These designs provide required friction force which controls the movement of vehicle on the ground.
Another function of tire is to provide suspension and reduce shock during running. For this purpose, tire is made by a Cushioning material like rubber, which can absorb shock when the car moves on rough terrains. It is also filled with compressed air which increases its shock absorbing capacity.
Tires are available in different size. Its specification is found on sidewalls of tires. It is designate like 245/75R16. The first number 245 describe the width of tire in millimeter. The other number 75 indicate the height of tire which is 75% more than its width. R is a symbol which shows the manufacturing method. R stands for radial. The last number 16 shows that this tire will fit on 15 inch diameter wheel.
Wheel hub assembly or sometimes referred as wheel hub or wheel assembly is an important component of the vehicle where the wheel is attached. It allows the wheel to turn freely. This assembly is mounted on the axle and rotates with it. The center hole is used to mount the hub to the axle. This hub is placed between the brake drums or disk and the axle. The brake pads apply the braking force against the hub which insure that the vehicle brakes.
There are many other holes are there which is used to connect wheel rim and wheel plate by use of fasteners. These holes are commonly known as lug holes.
Wheel fasteners are used for mounting the rim to the hub or axle. Mainly studs are used as wheel fasteners. Studs are different from bolt with threaded on both end. One end of it is fixed into the wheel hub and other is used to mount wheel rim on the axle. The head of the studs is wider than the hole in the hub which prevents the hole coming out properly. Lug nuts are used to fix rim on the hub. Lug nuts tightened into cross or star pattern. It reduces wheel flexing and shifting. For cross pattern tightening first tight the one corner nut and then tight across one and so one this minimize the chance of wheel flexion.
Value system is used for the purpose of keeping the air pressure inside the tire and refills it when required. The tire pressure monitoring system is also attached to the valve mechanism which update the driver with all tire pressure individually. It is useful for maintaining tire pressure and allows inflation and deflation.
Barrels are a part of wheel which provides a surface to on which tire is mounted. It is hollow cylindrical in shape and lies between the face and inner rim. The barrel inner diameter is known as drop center which influence the type of mounted wheel.
Bolt circle is an imaginary circle which creates by the lug bolt. It is expressed by the number of lug bolt. It has special characteristic in design which adds by the manufacture which makes it difficult to create cross fit wheel for other manufactures.
Flanges are used to connect the wheels (hub and rim) to the axle. These are located on both end of the wheel which keeps the tire held on its position in extreme condition. It is mounted with the help of lug nut.
It is the area of wheel which keeps the wheel properly in center and reduces vibrations generated by uneven balancing. It is an empty area that goes over the axle and supports the weight of vehicle. It fits on the hub collar and the wheel fit over it which makes a proper fit.
It is holes with bolt circle on the center disc. Lug nuts are bolted on these holes. With the help of lug nut and lug holes, wheel hub fastens to the vehicle axle. It may be round or conical in shape.
These are all major parts of car wheels which. All these parts perform their function to for proper functioning of car wheels. Every manufacture add some special characteristics to its part which make their wheel different and protect it from copy. There are many custom wheels are also available in market.