Friday, 13 May 2016

Milling Machine: Parts and Working

Today we will learn about milling machine parts and its working. Milling machine is used to machining the metal workpiece by a revolving cutting tool. The milling cutter usually used to cut the metal perpendicular to the tool axis. Milling machine is used to form various types of parts in the industries because it can machine all shape and size work piece. It is used to cut slots, grooves, and drill and perform all operation like to shape the workpiece.

The basic milling machine parts are base, column, arbor, knee, saddle, table, overhanging arm, elevating screw, ram etc. These parts are responsible for proper working of milling machine.

Milling Machine: Parts and Working

Milling is a mechanical machine which is used to machined unsymmetrical job. It is widely used in tool and die making industries. It is a versatile machine. It can perform all operations like turning, facing, drilling, shaping, grooving, etc.

Milling Machine Parts:

There are mostly two types of milling machine used in mechanical industries. First one is horizontal milling machine and other one is vertical milling machine. The basic parts of these machine described as follow.

Milling Machine Parts and Working


It is the foundation part of a milling machine. All other parts are jointed on it. It carries the entire load so it should have high compressive strength so it is made by cast iron. It also works as reservoir of cutting fluid.


Column is another foundation part of milling machine. It is mountain vertically on the base. It supports the knee, table etc.  Work as housing for the all the other driving is a hollow member which contains driving gears and sometimes motor for spindle and the table.


Knee is the first moving part of milling machine. If is mounted on the column and moves along the slideways situated over the column. It is made by cast iron and moves vertically on slideways It moves up and down on sideways which change the distance between tool and workpiece It is driven by mechanically or hydraulically.


It is placed between table and the knee and work as intermediate part between them. It can moves transversally to the column face. It slides over the guide ways provided situated on the knee which is perpendicular to the column face. The main function of it is to provide motion in horizontal direction to work piece. It is also made by cast iron.


Table is situated over the knee. It is the part of machine which holds the work piece while machining.  It is made by cast iron and have T slot cut over it. The work piece clamp over it by using clamping bolts. The one end of clamping bolt fix into this slot and other is fix to work piece which hold the work piece. It can provide three degree of freedom to work piece.
  • It provides vertical motion by moving the knee up and down.
  • It provides horizontal motion by the feed screw.
  • It provides horizontal (transverse) motion by moving the saddle.

Overhanging arm:

It is situated over the column on horizontal milling machine. It is overhang over the column surface and other end supports the arbor. It is made by cast iron.


Spindle is the main part of the machine which hold tool at right place in vertical milling machine and hold arbor in horizontal milling machine. It is a moving part which is in rotary motion. It is motor driven and drives the tool. It has a slot on the front end of it. The cutting tool fix in that slot.


It is a mechanical part on which is used as extension part of the spindle in horizontal milling machine. It is fitted on the spindle whenever required. It holds the tool and moves it in correct direction.

Arbor Supports:

This are used to support arbor at right place. One end of this support is jointed at the overhanging arm and another is jointed with arbor.

Milling head:

It is upper section of vertical milling machine. It consist spindle, driving motor and other controlling mechanism.


Ram is work as overhanging arm in vertical milling machine. One end of the arm is attached to the column and other end to the milling head.

Working of Milling Machine:

A milling is a versatile machine which is used to form different shapes by metal cutting. The working of milling machine is as follow.

1. First the cutting tool is set at the arbor which is connected to the spindle.
2. The knee is moved downward.
3. Now the work piece is clamped on the table by using clamping screw.
4. All the controlling points are set to zero like knee position, saddle position etc.
5. Now the spindle starts to rotate which further rotates the cutting tool.
6. As the tool is moving, we move the work piece as required by moving the knee, saddle and table.
7. The controlling axis move the work piece and cut the desire shape on it. The tool remains stationary and only in rotary motion.

Today we have learned about milling machine parts and its working. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting.


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