Hydraulic turbine is an hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy of water into mechanical energy. It installed at dam or near any large water reservoir.
Gas turbine uses compressed air or other gases to rotate the turbine and convert kinetic energy of gases into mechanical energy.
The last one is steam turbine in which first water is converted into high pressure super heated steam, which is further used to drive turbine.
In this article we will mainly concern about hydraulic turbine.
What is turbine?
A hydraulic machine which converts hydraulic energy into
mechanical energy is known as turbine. Turbine is a device which converts kinetic energy of water, air, gas or steam into mechanical energy which is further used to rotate generator shaft. Simply turbine is a rotor which has vanes at the peripheral and connected at the end of an electromagnet or well known generator shaft which causes to rotate it and generate electric power.
plants. As shown in diagram a dam is constructed across a river to store water. There
is an elevation difference between turbine and dam. Turbine and dam is connected
by a large diameter pipe called penstock which carries pressurize water from the storage reservoir to turbine. The turbine is connected to an electromagnet. When water strikes the turbine blades, it makes rotate the turbine hence electric generator which produces electric power. Turbine has different types of vanes fitted on rotter. The water is carried to tail race after worked on the
For clear understanding watch the following video.
Types of Turbines:
Turbine can be classified in various ways like according to direction of fluid, head at the inlet of turbine, types of fluid etc. These
According to the type of energy at inlet:
uses only its kinetic energy and the pressure of water remains constant at inlet and exit of it.
Example : Pelton Wheel
|Pelton Wheel Turbine|
turbine is different or the water use sits kinetic energy as well as pressure
energy to rotate the turbine, is known as reaction turbine. When the water under
pressure flows through the turbine, some of its pressure energy converts into
kinetic energy which rotate the turbine.
Example: Francis Turbine
|Kaplan Turbine (Reaction Turbine)|
According to the direction of flow through runner:
turbine is known as tangential flow turbine. Pelton wheel turbine is the
example of tangential flow turbine.
the turbine is called radial flow turbine. If the water flows from outward to
inward, radially, the turbine is known as inward radial flow turbine and if oppose
the turbine is known as outward radial flow turbine.
of the runner, the turbine is known as axial flow turbine. Kaplan Turbine is the
example of axial flow turbine.
but leaves in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the runner, the
turbine is called mixed flow turbine. Francis is the example of mixed flow turbine.
According to head at the inlet of turbine:
According to specific speed of turbine:
3. High specific speed turbine
Also Read : Types of Gas Turbine