An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that travels on land. It consist an internal combustion engine which provides the power and the vehicle runs on the wheels. The primary function of an automobile is to carries people and goods from one place to another. All bikes, cars, truck etc. include in it.
History of automobile:
The history of automobile is very wide, but today I am going to tell you some unforgettable years in the automobile field.
In the early days people used bullock carriage or other animals such as camel, horse etc. to transport good and human from one place to another. In use of these animals one big problem encounter is that they could not travel for long distance and for long time. So the necessary of a machine is arrive which can satisfied these function.
After a great effort of scientist an automobile come into existence in 1769, when a French engineer Captain Nicholas Cugnot design the first road vehicle propelled by its own power. It is a steam engine automobile but his design proved to be impractical. First steam carriage built by Richard Trevithick in 1801 in England. In the year 1860, first internal combustion engine is developed by J.J.E. Lenoir. He used coal gas as fuel. There is no compression
stroke before burring of fuel. In the year 1867, Nikolaus Otto and Eugen Langer used compression stroke in that engine so the power of engine will increase. In the year 1876, Nikolaus Otto developed first four stroke spark ignition engine.
After this several engineers (Dugald Clerk, James Robson and Karl Benz) developed two stroke engine. In the year 1880, Karl Benz in Germany developed a tricycle propelled by an internal combustion engine. In the year 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed first four stroke compression ignition engine. In the year 1920 a stratified charge engine developed which can run on both petrol and diesel. Ricardo developed a jet ignited stratified
charged engine. In the year 1957 Wankel developed a rotary type internal combustion engine.
How does an automobile work?
In an automobile many parts work together and make an automobile run. These all parts are known as basic component of an automobile.
Engine is the power unit in automobile. The main function of engine is to convert the chemical energy into mechanical energy by burning of fuel. This mechanical energy use to rotate the wheels.
When the engine produces power some mediators required to carry power from engine to wheels of vehicle. These mediators are known as power train. It includes clutch, gear box, propeller shaft, differential gear, rear axle etc.
Wheel is use to convert the rolling motion of engine into linear motion of vehicle.
Steering system is use to control the direction of vehicle according to the driver need.
Braking system is use to control the speed of vehicle. It stops of slow down the vehicle when the driver need.
Electric system is used in ignition system as well as in head light, brake light, indicator, Air conditioning system, horn etc.
It covers all components of vehicle and gives it a better appearance and also provides space for driver, passengers and language.
Classification of automobile:
An automobile may be classified in many manners. Today I am going to tell you some important classification of an automobile.
According to purpose:
It includes car, jeep, buses etc.
2. Goods vehicle:
It includes truck, pick-up truck etc.
According to fuel use:
1. Petrol vehicle:
It uses petrol or gasoline as the fuel. It used in bikes, cars etc.
2. Diesel vehicle:
It uses diesel fuel. It used in cars, buses, truck etc.
3. Gas vehicle:
It uses some flammable gases like CNG, LPG as the fuel.
4. Electric vehicle:
It is engineless automobile. It uses electric energy to run the vehicle. In this type of automobile there is a motor which run by electricity and make run the vehicle.
According to capacity of vehicle:
1. Heavy Transport Vehicle (HTV) or Heavy Motor Vehicle (HMV):
It includes buses, truck, dumpers etc.
2. Light Transport Vehicle (LTV:
It includes pick-up truck, station wagon etc.
3. Light Motor Vehicle (LMV):
It includes jeep sedan and hatchback cars etc.
According to drive of vehicle:
1. Left hand drive:
In these vehicles steering wheels fitted on left hand side. Many USA vehicles have left hand drive.
2. Right hand drive:
In these vehicles steering wheels fitted on right hand side. Many Indian vehicles have right hand drive.
3. Two wheel drive (4×2):
In these vehicles only two wheels are connected to the engine and others are free to rotate.
4. Four wheel drive (4×4):
In these vehicles all four wheels are connected to the engine.
According to number of wheels:
1. Two wheeler:
It includes all bikes, mopped, scooter etc.
2. Four wheeler:
It includes cars, jeep, pick-up, truck buses.
3. Six or eight wheeler:
For increase the load bearing capacity, some truck and buses are six or eight wheeler.